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A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells   总被引:521,自引:0,他引:521  
An endothelium-derived 21-residue vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin, has been isolated, and shown to be one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known. Cloning and sequencing of preproendothelin complementary DNA shows that mature endothelin is generated through an unusual proteolytic processing, and regional homologies to a group of neurotoxins suggest that endothelin is an endogenous modulator of voltage-dependent ion channels. Expression of the endothelin gene is regulated by several vasoactive agents, indicating the existence of a novel cardiovascular control system.  相似文献
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Identification of CRE1 as a cytokinin receptor from Arabidopsis   总被引:29,自引:0,他引:29  
Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones that are central to the regulation of cell division and differentiation in plants. It has been proposed that they are detected by a two-component system, because overexpression of the histidine kinase gene CKI1 induces typical cytokinin responses and genes for a set of response regulators of two-component systems can be induced by cytokinins. Two-component systems use a histidine kinase as an environmental sensor and rely on a phosphorelay for signal transduction. They are common in microorganisms, and are also emerging as important signal detection routes in plants. Here we report the identification of a cytokinin receptor. We identified Arabidopsis cre1 (cytokinin response 1) mutants, which exhibited reduced responses to cytokinins. The mutated gene CRE1 encodes a histidine kinase. CRE1 expression conferred a cytokinin-dependent growth phenotype on a yeast mutant that lacked the endogenous histidine kinase SLN1 (ref. 10), providing direct evidence that CRE1 is a cytokinin receptor. We also provide evidence that cytokinins can activate CRE1 to initiate phosphorelay signalling.  相似文献
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A structurally abnormal insulin causing human diabetes.   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Insulin isolated from the pancreas of a diabetic patient with fasting hyperinsulinaemia showed decreased activity in binding to cell membrane insulin receptors and in stimulating cellular 2-deoxyglucose transport and glucose oxidation. Chemical studies suggest that the isolated hormone is a mixture of normal insulin and an abnormal variant which contains a leucine for phenylalanine substitution at position 24 or 25 of the insulin B-chain.  相似文献
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The application of a sufficiently strong magnetic field to a superconductor will, in general, destroy the superconducting state. Two mechanisms are responsible for this. The first is the Zeeman effect, which breaks apart the paired electrons if they are in a spin-singlet (but not a spin-triplet) state. The second is the so-called 'orbital' effect, whereby the vortices penetrate into the superconductors and the energy gain due to the formation of the paired electrons is lost. For the case of layered, two-dimensional superconductors, such as the high-Tc copper oxides, the orbital effect is reduced when the applied magnetic field is parallel to the conducting layers. Here we report resistance and magnetic-torque experiments on single crystals of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor lambda-(BETS)2FeCl4, where BETS is bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. We find that for magnetic fields applied exactly parallel to the conducting layers of the crystals, superconductivity is induced for fields above 17 T at a temperature of 0.1 K. The resulting phase diagram indicates that the transition temperature increases with magnetic field, that is, the superconducting state is further stabilized with magnetic field.  相似文献
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Organic ferromagnets, which exhibit exchange interactions between unpaired electrons in pi-orbitals, are rare, and the origin of ferromagnetism in these compounds has so far remained unexplained. Tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene-fullerene[60] (TDAE-C60) shows a transition to a ferromagnetic state with fully saturated s = 1/2 molecular spins at the relatively high Curie temperature (for organic materials) of 16 K (ref. 4). It has been suggested that the orientations of the C60 molecules may be important for ferromagnetism in this material, but in the absence of structural data at low temperatures there has been little progress towards understanding these microscopic interactions. Here we report the results of a comparative structural study of two different magnetic forms of TDAE-C60 crystals at low temperatures, correlating the structural properties--in particular, the intermolecular orientations--with the magnetic properties. We find that both ferromagnetism and spin-glass-like ordering are possible in this material, and depend on the orientational state of C60 molecules. This resolves the apparent contradictions posed by different macroscopic measurements, and opens the way to a microscopic understanding of pi-electron ferromagnetic exchange interactions in organic materials.  相似文献
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Anthony RM  Kobayashi T  Wermeling F  Ravetch JV 《Nature》2011,475(7354):110-113
High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin is a widely used therapeutic preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. It is administered at high doses (1-2 grams per kilogram) for the suppression of autoantibody-triggered inflammation in a variety of clinical settings. This anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin is triggered by a minor population of IgG crystallizable fragments (Fcs), with glycans terminating in α2,6 sialic acids (sFc) that target myeloid regulatory cells expressing the lectin dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN; also known as CD209). Here, to characterize this response in detail, we generated humanized DC-SIGN mice (hDC-SIGN), and demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin can be recapitulated by the transfer of bone-marrow-derived sFc-treated hDC-SIGN(+) macrophages or dendritic cells into naive recipients. Furthermore, sFc administration results in the production of IL-33, which, in turn, induces expansion of IL-4-producing basophils that promote increased expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor FcγRIIB on effector macrophages. Systemic administration of the T(H)2 cytokines IL-33 or IL-4 upregulates FcγRIIB on macrophages, and suppresses serum-induced arthritis. Consistent with these results, transfer of IL-33-treated basophils suppressed induced arthritic inflammation. This novel DC-SIGN-T(H)2 pathway initiated by an endogenous ligand, sFc, provides an intrinsic mechanism for maintaining immune homeostasis that could be manipulated to provide therapeutic benefit in autoimmune diseases.  相似文献
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