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气候变化对中国北方温带草原植被的影响   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
在月、季节、生长季和年4个时间尺度上,采用Krigging空间插值方法对1982—1999年的降水、气温数据插值生成栅格影像,将其与1982—1999年的NOAA/AVHRR NDVI影像进行相关分析.同时,综合分析了归一化差值植被指数(normalized differential vegetation index,NDVI)、降水、气温、区域潜在蒸散量、区域实际蒸散量的年际季节变化.结果表明,降水是制约本区植被生长的根本原因,夏季降水量对植被生长的影响最为显著,7—8月份的降水对下月植被的生长有重要的影响.同时得出中国北方温带草原植被与气象因子相关性的空间分布图.  相似文献
2.
Carbondioxide(CO2),akeygreenhousegas,con-tributesgreatlytoglobalwarming.TheatmosphericCO2concentrationhasincreasedby31%since1750[1].Theincreaseratewas3.2±0.1Pga-1(1Pg=1015g)inthe1990sandthecurrentincreaserateisunprecedentedoverthepast20000years[1].TheatmosphericCO2contentismostlydependentonthenetexchangeofCO2withincarbonpoolsinvolvedinthecarboncycleprocesses.InvestigationoftheprocessesandmechanismsofCO2exchangebetweenterrestrialecosystemandtheatmos-pherehasbeenbecomingoneofthehotspotswit…  相似文献
3.
气候驱动的中国陆地生态系统碳循环研究进展   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
近年来,碳循环问题日益成为全球变化与地球科学研究领域的前沿与热点问题,其中,陆地生态系统碳循环又是全球碳循环中最复杂、受人类活动影响最大的部分.本文主要对气候驱动的中国陆地生态系统碳循环研究进展做了综述,介绍了陆地生态系统中植被和土壤两个主要碳库以及陆地生态系统碳循环的基本过程,总结了陆地碳汇的形成机制、研究进展及气候变化对碳失汇的影响,提出了对陆地生态系统碳循环的研究应采用多尺度的研究方法,并简要叙述了中国陆地生态系统碳循环的研究展望.  相似文献
4.
Terrestrial carbon cycling is one of the hotspots in global change issues. In this paper, we presented the rationale for determination of net exchange of CO2 between terrestrial and the atmosphere (NEE) and the methods for measuring several relevant components. Three key processes for determination of NEE were addressed, including the separation of shoot autotrophic respiration from total CO2 emissions of the ecosystem, the partition of root respiration from soil CO2 efflux, and the quantification of rhizodeposition C from NPP. With an understanding of the processes involved in the CO2 exchange between terrestrial and the atmosphere, we estimated NEE of rice ecosystem in Nanjing based on field measurements of CO2 emissions and several relevant biotic components as well as abiotic factors. The field measurements of CO2 emissions were made over the rice-growing seasons in 2001 and 2002 with the static opaque chamber method. Calculations indicated that the seasonal pattern of NEE is comparable for two seasons. Either net carbon emission or fractional carbon fixation occurred during 3 weeks after rice transplanting and thereafter net carbon fixation appeared with an increasing trend as rice growing. Higher net carbon fixation occurred in the rice developmental period from elongating to heading. A decline trend in the fixation was documented after rice heading. The mean daily NEE was -6.06 gC·m−2 in 2001 season and -7.95 gC·m−2 in 2002 season, respectively. These values were comparable to the results obtained by Campbell et al. who made field measurements with the Bowen ratio-energy balance technique in irrigated rice, Texas USA. Moreover, the mean daily NEE in this study was also comparable to the values obtained from a Japanese rice paddy with the eddy covariance method under the similar water regime, either drainage course or waterlogged. It is concluded that NEE determined by the static opaque chamber method is comparable and in agreement with those measured by Bowen ratioenergy balance and eddy covariance methods.  相似文献
5.
Stable carbon isotopes of C3 and C4 plants have completely distinct δ13C values respectively. Carbonate in tooth enamel of herbivorous mammals is significantly and regularly enriched in 13C compared to source carbon. As a result, we can reconstruct distributions of C3 and C4 plants in geological history based on carbon isotopes of mammalian tooth enamel. Carbon isotopes of 70 mammalian tooth enamel samples from 11 Quaternary localities in northern China are analyzed. This analysis indicates that C3 plants were dominant in the terrestrial ecosystem of northern China during the Quaternary, which is completely different from Pakistan with relatively close latitudes where C4 plants were absolutely dominant. The great difference was caused by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. A simulation implied that a marked temperature decrease would happen in the north side of the Tibetan Plateau, but a temperature increase in the south side. The warming condition caused the transition from C3 to C4 plants in Pakistan situated in the south side of this plateau. In the north side, on the contrary, the cooling condition restrained the distribution of C4 plants. As a result, C3 plants have been dominant in northern China until now.  相似文献
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Since Westman(1977) and Ehrlich(1982) put forward the concepts of "the service of nature" and "ecosystem service functions",respectively,methods for conducting value accounting for them,and their practical application have become the subjects of intense study.Based on an overview of available research findings,we discuss three scientific hypotheses.First,the terrestrial ecosystem offers both positive and negative service functions.Second,changes in terrestrial ecosystem service functions lie not only in the number of ecosystem types and the coverage area of each type,but also in their quality.Third,the value of terrestrial ecosystem service functions should be assessed both in terms of the value stocked and the value added.We collected land use data from China during the period 1999-2008,and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data based on remote sensing images from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies for the same period.We then calculated and analyzed spatial and temporal changes in China’s terrestrial ecosystem service values over the 10-year period.Considering temporal change,the total value(stocked) of China’s terrestrial ecosystem service functions decreased from 6.82 trillion Yuan RMB in 1999 to 6.57 trillion Yuan RMB in 2008.During that period,the positive value decreased by 240.17 billion Yuan RMB and the negative value increased by 8.85 billion Yuan RMB.The decrease in total value lies mainly in the humidity control,soil formation,and waste recycling functions.The total value(added) of China’s terrestrial ecosystem service functions increased by 4.31 billion Yuan RMB in 2000,but decreased by 0.13 billion Yuan RMB in 2008(based on the constant price of China in 1999).The value(added) was a negative figure.From the perspective of spatial change,we can see that the supply of China’s terrestrial ecosystem service functions fell slightly over the past 10 years,mainly in Northeast and Southern China.As a result of human activities on ecosystems,the loss of ecosystem service functions’ value was relatively prominent in Shanxi and Gansu provinces,compared with an increase in value in Shaanxi Province.Terrestrial ecosystem service functions’ value per unit area was relatively high in mid-and East China,showing a prominent spatial change over the 10-year period,but low in Western China.Some conclusions are drawn after an in-depth analysis of the factors causing the spatial and temporal changes in China’s terrestrial ecosystem service functions,in the hope that our suggestions will be helpful for the management of China’s terrestrial ecosystems.  相似文献
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