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This essay defines the concepts of ecological flow velocity as well as ecological hydraulic radius (EHR) and proposes an ecological hydraulic radius approach (EHRA) which considers both the watercourse information (including hydraulic radius, roughness coefficient and hydraulic gradient) and the required stream velocity necessary for maintenance of certain ecological functions all together. The key parameter of EHRA is to fix the watercourse cross-sectional flow area corresponding to EHR, by which the relation between parabola shaped cross-sectional flow area and hydraulic radius is deduced. The EHRA not only meets the requirement of flow velocity for adequate fish spawning migration, but also is applicable to the ecological flows in regard with other ecological issues (such as the calculation of the instream flow requirements for transporting sediment and for pollution self-purification, etc.). This essay has illuminated the computational process taking the estimation of ecological water requirement of Zhuba Hydrologyical Station watercourse in Niqu branch of the Yalong River as an example. Additionally, we compare EHRA with Tennant approach. The result shows that the Zhuba Hydrological Station ecological water requirement calculated by EHRA lies between the minimum and favorable ecological water requirement calculated by the Tennant approach. This is due to the fact that the ecological flow velocity (such as the fish spawning migration flow velocity) was taken into consideration, producing results applicable to the practical situation.  相似文献
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流域基本单元汇流研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
推导了V形基本单元的面积-时间曲线,即得到了其地貌瞬时单位线,继而求出其时段单位线,再与净雨卷积,即可求得流域基本单元的汇流过程.以星丰流域为例,进行了流域基本单元汇流计算,得到了令人满意的结果.这在一定程度上促进了流域汇流理论的发展,必将在推进水资源开发利用、洪水预报、水污染防治以及湿地生态保护等方面表现出重要的理论意义和应用价值.  相似文献
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致密气藏水平井产量预测及影响因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
致密砂岩气藏具有极低的孔隙度、渗透率以及高有效应力等特征,其气水渗流规律并不满足传统意义上的经典渗流理论.针对致密砂岩气藏渗流特征,结合水平井渗流场特征,将水平井渗流区域划分为近井非达西流动区域和远井达西流动区域,并综合考虑启动压力梯度、滑脱效应和应力敏感效应的影响,推导出致密砂岩气藏水平井产能方程.并以某致密砂岩气藏为例,研究这3个因素对致密砂岩气藏水平井产能的影响.结果表明:(1)启动压力梯度对水平井产能影响呈线性下降关系,应力敏感效应呈幂函数下降关系,而滑脱效应呈近似上升趋势;(2)应力敏感效应比启动压力梯度对水平气井产能影响更为强烈,而滑脱效应影响相对较小.  相似文献
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三峡水库消落区的开发、利用与管理是一项长期性的系统工程和民心工程,是实现库区可持续发展和生态经济走廊的重要组成部分,深入研究和认真探索三峡水库消落区的开发、利用、管理具有重大的现实意义.本文结合万州实际,从三峡水库消落区的形成和分类、管理与治理、开发与利用进行了初步的分析和思考,提出了一些有针对性的对策和建议.  相似文献
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以陕西省秦巴山区紫阳县为例,基于对于该区山洪灾害成灾致灾因素及山洪灾害的时空分布特点的分析研究,探讨了陕南秦巴山地紫阳县山洪灾害形成区的空间分布,提出了山洪灾害的产流区、汇流区及泻洪区,并根据不同防治区空间特征,提出了相应增加气象与地质灾害预警预报系统、增强退耕还林力度等非工程性措施及河道清淤、病险水库(渠)加固等针对性工程性措施。同时,认为真正达到防灾减灾的目的,必须走工程性措施与生物措施结合治理之路。  相似文献
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The flat fan nozzle with a single orifice formed by a rectangular cut at the nozzle exit through a semi-ellipsoid blind end was developed. The flow rate characteristic of the nozzle was analyzed. Theoretical analysis shows that the discharge coefficient of the nozzle is a function of the ratio of the projected exit flow area to the cross sectional area of the nozzle input section. Water spraying experiment results show that the discharge coefficient increases with the increase of the ratio of the projected exit flow area to the cross sectional area of the nozzle input section when the rectangular cut depth doesn't exceed the distance from the center of the hemisphere to the nozzle end; conversely,the discharge coefficient decreases with the increase of the ratio; for a given nozzle,the discharge coefficient varies with Reynolds number.  相似文献
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针对多作用内曲线径向柱塞式液压马达的配流盘配流窗口和柱塞腔配流槽结构,建立两者之间通流面积的数学模型,并提出满配流系数m的概念。建立多作用内曲线径向柱塞式液压马达模型,进行了配流盘配流过程仿真和柱塞运动及液压力特性仿真,分析不同满配流系数m对液压马达输出扭矩的影响。结果表明,多作用内曲线径向柱塞液压马达配流盘配流窗口和柱塞腔配流槽的适宜满配流系数为0~0.5,最优满配流系数为0.3。这可为多作用内曲线径向柱塞液压马达配流盘配流窗口和柱塞腔配流槽结构的设计提供参考。  相似文献
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