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Guo ZT  Ruddiman WF  Hao QZ  Wu HB  Qiao YS  Zhu RX  Peng SZ  Wei JJ  Yuan BY  Liu TS 《Nature》2002,416(6877):159-163
The initial desertification in the Asian interior is thought to be one of the most prominent climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere during the Cenozoic era. But the dating of this transition is uncertain, partly because desert sediments are usually scattered, discontinuous and difficult to date. Here we report nearly continuous aeolian deposits covering the interval from 22 to 6.2 million years ago, on the basis of palaeomagnetic measurements and fossil evidence. A total of 231 visually definable aeolian layers occur as brownish loesses interbedded with reddish soils. This new evidence indicates that large source areas of aeolian dust and energetic winter monsoon winds to transport the material must have existed in the interior of Asia by the early Miocene epoch, at least 14 million years earlier than previously thought. Regional tectonic changes and ongoing global cooling are probable causes of these changes in aridity and circulation in Asia.  相似文献
Control of tillering in rice   总被引:141,自引:0,他引:141  
Li X  Qian Q  Fu Z  Wang Y  Xiong G  Zeng D  Wang X  Liu X  Teng S  Hiroshi F  Yuan M  Luo D  Han B  Li J 《Nature》2003,422(6932):618-621
Tillering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important agronomic trait for grain production, and also a model system for the study of branching in monocotyledonous plants. Rice tiller is a specialized grain-bearing branch that is formed on the unelongated basal internode and grows independently of the mother stem (culm) by means of its own adventitious roots. Rice tillering occurs in a two-stage process: the formation of an axillary bud at each leaf axil and its subsequent outgrowth. Although the morphology and histology and some mutants of rice tillering have been well described, the molecular mechanism of rice tillering remains to be elucidated. Here we report the isolation and characterization of MONOCULM 1 (MOC1), a gene that is important in the control of rice tillering. The moc1 mutant plants have only a main culm without any tillers owing to a defect in the formation of tiller buds. MOC1 encodes a putative GRAS family nuclear protein that is expressed mainly in the axillary buds and functions to initiate axillary buds and to promote their outgrowth.  相似文献
The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km   总被引:102,自引:0,他引:102  
Ye K  Cong B  Ye D 《Nature》2000,407(6805):734-736
Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km.  相似文献
The genesis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks in the Dahalajunshan group, mainly consisting of trachytes and trachy-andesites and distributing widely in western Tianshan Mountains, remains to be controversial. It has been proposed to be relevant to “rift” or “plume”. Detailed petrology and geochemical data presented in this paper show that these volcanic rocks represent typical continental arc magmatism. The volcanic rocks are mainly trachy-andesitic, and the magma source is enriched in LILE, Th and Pb, and depleted in HFSE and Ce. Trace element geochemical study suggests that the basalts could be modeled by 7% -11% partial melt of garnet Iherzolite. The volcanic rocks in the Dahalajunshan group are neither the products of “rift” nor so-called “plume”but represent the continental island arc of the Paleo-Southern Tianshan Ocean. The mantle wedge had been modified by the melt generating in subduction zone during a long evolution history of this island arc. The continental crust materials (i.e. mainly sediment on ocean floor) had been added into island arc through melt in subduction zone. Volcanic rocks occurring in different regions might represent magma eruption in different time. The zircon SHRIMP dating indicates that the ages of the basalt varies between 334.0 Ma and 394.9 Ma. The 13 analyses give an average age of 353.7±4.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.7). The apparent ages of zircons in trachy-andesite vary between 293.0 Ma and 465.4 Ma. All analyses fall on the U-Pb concordant line and are divided into two groups. 8 analyses produce an average age of 312.8±4.2 Ma (MSWD = 1.7), which represents the crystallizing age of zircon rims in trachy-andesite. The acquired two ages (i.e. 354 and 313 Ma) belong to the Early Carboniferous and Late Carboniferous epochs, respectively. Thus, the Dahalajunshan group would be separated into several groups with the accumulation of high-quality age dating and data of trace element and isotopic geochemistry, in our opinion.  相似文献
H_∞鲁棒控制中的加权阵选择   总被引:72,自引:2,他引:70  
研究了线性时不变系统H∞鲁棒控制中的加权阵选择问题,探讨了在一般的跟踪控制问题的H∞设计中如何选择三个合适的加权阵,确定广义受控对象,使设计满足多目标的要求等问题。提出了在频率域中选择加权阵,再转化到状态空间进行优化设计。考虑一大类存在低频参数摄动和高频未建模动态的情况,给出了鲁棒控制兼顾闭环动态特性和干扰抑制时的加权阵选择方法与具体步骤。并就一具体例子进行了仿真,结果表明将控制量的加权阵作为调整参数进行设计对提高闭环系统的鲁棒性是有益的。这里加权阵的选择方法,既适用SISO系统,也适用MIMO系统。  相似文献
基于克服过早收敛的自适应并行遗传算法   总被引:65,自引:0,他引:65  
为了克服遗传算法中存在的主要问题即过早收敛(过早收敛使得一些优秀个体或基因过早地被排除掉,从而导致搜索范围缩小及局部最优,影响了进一步搜索),从控制参数的改进着手,提出了多种群并行进化及自适应调整控制参数相结合的思想。克服了以往定常参数单种群进化的不足,综合了不同特性种群进化的长处,使得过早收敛问题得以缓解,同时又提高了搜索的范围和效率。  相似文献
车间生产调度问题的技术现状与发展趋势   总被引:58,自引:0,他引:58  
对于CIMS环境下的车间的计划与调度问题,从FMS(柔性制造系统)中车间调度问题的分类与特点的讨论出发,综述了当前存在的车间调度问题的各种研究方法;在总结出当前研究调度问题的多种研究策略的基础上,指出了当前车间调度问题研究中存在的问题、解决途径及发展趋势。提出了几个具有前途和代表性的关于这类问题的研究方向和方法,以期为这类问题的研究指出可行的道路和方向。  相似文献
固体酸Zr(SO4)2·4H2O催化制备生物柴油   总被引:54,自引:0,他引:54       下载免费PDF全文
采用新型固体酸Zr(SO4)2·4H2O替代传统的液体酸、碱催化剂,催化大豆油与甲醇的酯交换反应,制备生物柴油。考察了醇油摩尔比,催化剂用量,反应时间等因素对转化率的影响。采用气相色谱跟踪反应进程中各组分含量分布。优化出该反应最适宜的操作条件为:醇-油摩尔比6∶1,催化剂用量占原料油质量的3%,反应时间6h,反应温度65℃.在此条件下生物柴油的收率可达96.6%。制得的生物柴油与中国0#柴油(GB 252—1994优级品)的主要性能指标接近。  相似文献
An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem   总被引:52,自引:0,他引:52  
Zhou Z  Barrett PM  Hilton J 《Nature》2003,421(6925):807-814
Fieldwork in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group, northeastern China has revealed a plethora of extraordinarily well-preserved fossils that are shaping some of the most contentious debates in palaeontology and evolutionary biology. These discoveries include feathered theropod dinosaurs and early birds, which provide additional, indisputable support for the dinosaurian ancestry of birds, and much new evidence on the evolution of feathers and flight. Specimens of putative basal angiosperms and primitive mammals are clarifying details of the early radiations of these major clades. Detailed soft-tissue preservation of the organisms from the Jehol Biota is providing palaeobiological insights that would not normally be accessible from the fossil record.  相似文献
纳米TiO2在涂料中的抗菌性能研究   总被引:51,自引:0,他引:51       下载免费PDF全文
将实验室自制的抗菌纳米TiO2添加于苯-丙乳液中,制成抗菌涂料.透射电镜测试结果表明,表面处理后的抗菌纳米TiO2在乳液中能够均匀分散,可充分发挥纳米TiO2的杀菌作用.杀菌测试结果表明,该抗菌涂料对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢的杀菌率均达到99%以上,并且它不受光源条件限制,抗菌作用彻底、持久.  相似文献
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